Psychology

(from greek: ψυχή psyché = soul, λόγος logos = science)

Psychology it’s the science that studies human behavior, including mental functions and mental processes such as intelligence, memory, perception, and inner and subjective experiences such as feelings, hopes, and motivation, either conscious or unconscious processes.

It’s the science that studies human behavior, including mental functions and mental processes such as intelligence, memory, perception, and inner and subjective experiences such as feelings, hopes, and motivation, either conscious or unconscious processes.

Since the establishment of the first experimental laboratory of psychology by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 at the University of Leipzig, psychology has gradually separated from philosophy, from which it came, to become a stand-alone specialty with a number of directions and subspecialties, which they only have a common language in part.

From antiquity until the end of the 19th century, psychology was considered a component part of philosophy. We find the first references to Aristotle in the work “On the Soul” (gr. Peri psychês). Theophrastus defines 30 human characters, which is the first attempt at typology of persons. The term psychology, however, is used only towards the end of the Middle Ages by Philipp Melanchton in his work Kommentar über die Seele (1540).

The English empiricism of the 17th century reduced psychic functions to predictable phenomena with their own laws. In Thomas Hobbes’s mechanistic theory, the “soul” had no place. In a paper from 1704, Leibnitz first mentions the existence of subconscious processes.

Johannes Nikolaus Tetens is considered a true father of psychology, who in his work Philosophische Versuche über die menschliche Natur und ihre Entwicklung (1777) (Philosophical Considerations on Human Nature and its Development) makes a detailed description of psychic functions and processes up to valid our times.

Starting with the 19th century, psychology began to take shape as an independent discipline. At the same time, different currents and different orientations have developed, depending on the conceptions of the respective psychologists. As in any branch of science that has sprung from philosophy, purely philosophical issues about the nature of the spirit have not ceased to be debated, even leading to the emergence of a philosophy of spirit or philosophical psychology.

Experimental psychology, based on the work of Wilhelm Wundt and William James, focuses on general issues such as behavior and mood, including pathological conditions, important for clinical psychology.

The phenomenological school with Wilhelm Dilthey, Franz Brentano and Karl Jaspers considers psychic processes as indivisible phenomena, while Behaviorism, based largely on the works of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, views human behavior as a conditioned manifestation, an association of stimuli with specific responses.

Configuration Psychology (Gestaltpsychologie) occupies a special place in German psychology, whose representatives (Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler) regard the psychic life as a unitary whole.Since the end of the 19th century, Sigmund Freud has used Psychoanalysis as a therapeutic method and inaugurated Abyssal Psychology.

Humanistic psychology, which emerged as a reaction against behaviorism and psychoanalysis, has its roots in Existentialism and emphasizes individual experience, trying to explain the essence of the human being through qualitative investigations (Abraham Maslow).

Fundamental notions of psychology: affectiveness, attention, behavior, conditioning, consciousness, creativity, knowledge, emotion, thinking, imagination, instinct, intelligent, language, memory, motivation, neurosis, perception, psychometry, psychosis, representation, stress, will, trauma.